This publication is an addition to the IPIECA-IOGP good practice guide series which summarizes current views on good practice for a range of oil spill preparedness and response topics. The series aims to align industry practices and activities, inform stakeholders, and serve as a communication tool to promote awareness and education. It builds upon experiences gained from spills and draws upon references from a wide range of sources, both from within the IPIECA and IOGP membership and across the wider response community. This technical support document has been developed to help navigate the steps involved in implementing and maintaining a surveillance programme during a response. The guidance introduces six activity steps which are fundamental in developing and maintaining a surveillance plan regardless of the size of an incident. The guidance also outlines how a surveillance unit can be set up for large or complex responses, demonstrating how the work streams within the six steps may be divided to maintain workloads, good communication and manageable span of control.