An overview of marine seismic operations

IOGP Report 448

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Seismic surveying is commonly used in the industry for both exploration and monitoring of producing fields. The same seismic principles also apply to offshore CO2 storage projects. The Report aims to provide a common ground for operator(s), local regulatory bodies, or public stakeholders on understanding the methods, technology and terminology used for marine seismic operations. Having that common understanding should enable stakeholders to assess which technology and method to use for their need. It shall also provide the necessary basic understanding when discussing impact of marine seismic operations on the environment, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the impact to a minimum level. The scope and focus of this Report are on 2D and 3D towed marine seismic, seabed seismic, time lapse seismic, vertical seismic profiling, transition zone acquisition, and the different technologies involved with these methods.


Additional information


Environmental Management

Document type


Publication Date

January 2024